The origins of language, بررسی ریشه های زبانی
تورهای آموزشی به جمهوری چک و برگزاری آزمونهای بین المللی زبان
کمپ دانش آموزشی ساعد|موسسه ساعد|جمهوری چک|آزمونهای بین المللی|Carlsbad
The origins of language بررسی ریشه های زبانی در موسسه ساعد
We simply do not know how language originated. We do know that spoken language developed well before written language. Yet , when we uncover trace of human life on earth dating back half a million years, we never find any director evidence relating to speech of our distant ancestors. Perhaps because of this absence of physical evidence,
there has been no shortage of speculation about the origins of human speech.
According to view, God created Adam and what s over Adam called every living creature ,that was the name thereof (Genesis,2:19).Alternatively, following a Hindu tradition, language came from the goddess Sarasvati , wife of Brahma ,creator of the universe. In most religions, there appears to be a divine source who provides humans with language. In an attempt to rediscover this original, divine language, a few experiments have been carried out ,with rather conflicting results .The hypothesis seems to have been that, if infants were allowed to grow up without hearing any language, then they would spontaneously begin using the original God-given language.
The origins of language
James IV of Scotland carried out a experiment around A.D.1500 and the children were reported to have started speaking Hebrew .It is unfortunate that all other cases of children who have been discovered living in isolation. children living without access to human speech in their early years grow up with no language at all .If human language did emanate from a divine source ,we have no way of reconstructing that original language ,especially given the events in a city called Babel ,”because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth”(Genesis,11:9).
A quite different view of the beginnings of human speech is based on the concept of natural sounds. The suggestion is that primitive words could have been imitations of the natural sounds which early men and women heard around them. when an abject flew by ,making a CAW-CAW sound, the early human imitated the sound and used it to refer to the object associate with the sound .And when the another flying object made a CUCKOO sound ,that natural sound was adopted to refer to that object .In English , in addition to cuckoo, we have splash ,bang ,boom, rattle, buzz ,hiss, screech .It has also been suggested that original sounds of language came from natural cries of emotion ,such as pain ,anger and joy .By this route ,presumably ,OUCH came to have its painful connotations .However ,it has been noted that expressive noises people make in emotional reactions contain sounds which are not otherwise used in their language ,and , consequently ,seem to be unlikely candidates as source sounds .One other “natural sound” proposal has come to be known as the “Yo -have-ho theory” that I omit it in this essay.
In 1786, a British government official called sir William Jones .who was working as a judge of the high court in India ,made the following observation about the ancient language of Indian law which he had been studying .The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity ,is of wonderful structure more perfect than the Greek ,more copious than the Latin ,and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity ,both in the roots of verbs and in forms of grammar. Sir William went on to suggest, in a way that was quite revolutionary for its time, that a number of languages from very different geographical areas must have some common ancestor.
تورهای آموزشی به جمهوری چک و برگزاری آزمونهای بین المللی زبان
Looking at the Indo-European family tree , one might ask how it can be determined that these language groups are related. One the face of it, two languages such as Persian and English would seem to have nothing in common. One way to see the relationships more clearly is by looking at records of an older generation. Like Latin and Sanskrit from which the modern languages developed. There is a list of English words which originated from persian.
Etymology: Meaning “Man of Army / One With Army” “Ar” short for “Artesh” meaning (Army) + “Mand” which relates to conduct to the prior word.
Etymology: بالاخانه bālākhāna from Persian بالا bālā ‘above’ + خانه khāna ‘house, upperhouse, room’
“governor of Croatia,” from Serbo-Croat. ban “lord, master, ruler,” from Persian baan (بان) “prince, lord, chief, governor
from Persian بازار bāzār (=”market”), from Middle_persian بها-زار bahâ-zâr (“The Place of Prices”
Etymology: Hindi begaar, from Persian بی-کار bi-kār. Meaning ‘without work’, forced labor
Etymology: modification of Persian بالم balam. a Persian-gulf boat holding about eight persons and propelled by paddles or poles
Etymology: Perhaps ultimately from Pers. برنج birinj “copper
from Middle French eschec mat, from Persian شاه مات shâh mât (“the King (“Shah”) is dead”)[
Etymology: Persian دخمه, from Middle Persian dakhmak, from Avestan daxma- funeral place
from یاسمین yasmin, the name of a climbing plant with fragrant flowers
from گلاب gulab (rose(گل gul)-water(آب ab)).[
from کوشک kushk (=”palace, portico, pavilion”) or Middle Persian gōšak “corner
Middle English magik, from Middle French magique, from Latin magicus, from Greek magikos , from magos magus, wizard, sorcerer (of Iranian origin; akin to Old Persian magush sorcerer). of or relating to the occult: supposedly having supernatural properties or powers
via Portuguese pagode, from a corruption of Pers. بتکده butkada, from but “idol” + kada “dwelling.
via French: “paradis” and Latin: “paradisus,” from Greek paradeisos (=enclosed park”), from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek περί peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. An associated word is the Sanskrit word paradesha which literally means supreme country.
Etymology: Arabic صندل sandal, from Persian صندل sandal skiff
from the Persian fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip سه شاهزادهى سراندیپ, from Persian Sarandip سراندیپ
Etymology: from Persian شال shāl
According to one theory, it is from Jerez in Spain, which itself comes from Pers شیراز Shiraz during the time of Rustamid empire in Spain. The theory is also mentioned by Professor. T.B. Irving in one of his book reviews
Etymology: The word is Sanskrit which is an Indo-Iranian language of the Indo-Aryan branch but Persian played a role in transmitting it. Middle English sugre, sucre, from Anglo-French sucre, from Medieval Latin saccharum, from Old Italian zucchero, from Arabic sukkar, from Pahlavi shakar, ultimately from Sanskrit sarkara
Etymology: from Persian تافته taftah meaning woven
Avestan vispa ratavo meaning all the lords. one of the supplementary ritual texts included
in the Avestan sacred writings